Sri Lankan officials failed to heed warnings from intelligence agencies about the threat of an attack by a domestic radical Muslim group, the country’s health minister said Monday.
Officials blame them for the Easter Sunday bombings that killed more than 200 people.
The coordinated blasts that ripped through churches and luxury hotels were carried out by seven suicide bombers from a militant group named National Thowfeek Jamaath, Health Minister Rajitha Senaratne said.
International intelligence agencies warned of the attacks several times, starting on April 4th, Mr Senaratne said.
On April 9th, the defence ministry wrote to the police chief with intelligence that included the group’s name, he said.
On April 11th, police wrote to the heads of security of the judiciary and diplomatic security division, Mr Senaratne said.
It was not immediately clear what action, if any, was taken in response.
Because of political dysfunction within the government, Mr Seranatne said, Sri Lanka’s prime minister Ranil Wickremesinghe and his cabinet were kept in the dark about the intelligence until after the attacks.
President Maithrela Sirisena, who was out of the country at the time of the attacks, ousted Mr Wickremesinghe in late October and dissolved the cabinet.
The Sri Lankan supreme court eventually reversed his actions, but the prime minister has not been allowed into meetings of the security council since October.
All of the bombers were Sri Lankan citizens, but authorities suspect foreign links, Mr Senaratne said.
Earlier, Ariyananda Welianga, a government forensic crime investigator, said an analysis of the attackers’ body parts made clear that they were suicide bombers. He said most of the attacks were carried out by a single bomber, with two at the Shangri-La Hotel in the capital, Colombo.
Sri Lanka said on Monday it was invoking emergency powers in the aftermath of devastating bomb attacks on hotels and churches, blamed on militants with foreign links, in which 290 people were killed and nearly 500 wounded.
The emergency law, which gives police and the military extensive powers to detain and interrogate suspects without court orders, will go into effect at midnight on Monday, the president’s office said.
Meanwhile, Sri Lankan police investigating the bombings are examining reports that intelligence agencies had warnings of possible attacks, officials said.
Two government ministers have alluded to intelligence failures.
Sri Lankas telecommunications minister Harin Fernando tweeted: “Some intelligence officers were aware of this incidence. Therefore there was a delay in action. Serious action needs to be taken as to why this warning was ignored.”
He said his father had heard of the possibility of an attack as well and had warned him not to enter popular churches.
And Mano Ganeshan, the minister for national integration, said his ministry’s security officers had been warned by their division about the possibility that two suicide bombers would target politicians.
The Sri Lankan police’s criminal investigation department, which is handling the investigation into the blasts, will look into those reports, Mr Gunasekara said.
Cardinal Malcolm Ranjith, the Archbishop of Colombo, said the attacks could have been thwarted.
“We placed our hands on our heads when we came to know that these deaths could have been avoided. Why this was not prevented?” he said.
Earlier, Defence Minister Ruwan Wijewardena described the blasts as a terrorist attack by religious extremists, and police said 13 suspects had been arrested, though there was no immediate claim of responsibility. Mr Wijewardena said most of the bombings were believed to have been suicide attacks.
But officials have yet to say who they believe is behind the attacks.
The Tamil Tigers, once a powerful rebel army known for its use of suicide bombers, was crushed by the government in 2009, and had little history of targeting Christians.
While anti-Muslim bigotry has swept the island in recent years, fed by Buddhist nationalists, the island also has no history of violent Muslim militants. The country’s small Christian community has seen only scattered incidents of harassment in recent years.
The explosions – mostly in or around Colombo – collapsed ceilings and blew out windows, killing worshippers and hotel guests in one scene after another of smoke, soot, blood, broken glass, screams and wailing alarms.
A morgue worker in the town of Negombo, outside Colombo, where St Sebastian’s Church was targeted, said many bodies were hard to identify because of the extent of the injuries.
Lakmal, a 41-year-old businessman in Negombo who declined to give his last name, went with his family to St Sebastian’s for Easter Mass.
He said they all escaped the blast unscathed, but he remains haunted by images of bodies being taken from the sanctuary and tossed into a truck.
At the Shangri-La Hotel, a witness said “people were being dragged out” after the blast.
“There was blood everywhere,” said Bhanuka Harischandra, a 24-year-old from Colombo and founder of a tech marketing company, who was heading to the hotel for a meeting when it was bombed.
“People didn’t know what was going on. It was panic mode.”
Most of those killed were Sri Lankans. But the three bombed hotels and one of the churches, St Anthony’s Shrine, are frequented by foreign tourists, and Sri Lanka’s foreign ministry said the bodies of at least 27 foreigners from a variety of countries had been recovered.
The US said “several” Americans were among the dead, while Britain, India, China, Japan, Portugal and Australia said they, too, had lost citizens.
The streets were largely deserted on Monday morning, with most shops closed and a heavy deployment of soldiers and police. Stunned clergy and onlookers gathered at St Anthony’s Shrine, looking past the soldiers to the stricken church.
The Sri Lankan government initially lifted a curfew that had been imposed during the night but reinstated it on Monday afternoon.
Most social media remained blocked on Monday after officials said they needed to curtail the spread of false information and ease tension in the country of about 21 million people.
Sri Lanka’a prime minister Mr Wickremesinghe said he feared the massacre could trigger instability in Sri Lanka, and vowed to “vest all necessary powers with the defence forces” to take action against those responsible.
The scale of the bloodshed recalled the worst days of Sri Lanka’s 26-year civil war, when the Tamil Tigers, from the ethnic Tamil minority, sought independence from the Sinhalese-dominated country. The Sinhalese are largely Buddhist. The Tamils are Hindu, Muslim and Christian.
Sri Lanka, off the southern tip of India, is about 70 per cent Buddhist. In recent years, tensions have been running high between hardline Buddhist monks and Muslims.
Two Muslim groups in Sri Lanka condemned the church attacks, as did countries around the world, and Pope Francis expressed condolences at the end of his traditional Easter Sunday blessing in Rome.
Six nearly simultaneous blasts took place in the morning at the shrine and the Cinnamon Grand, Shangri-La and Kingsbury hotels in Colombo, as well as at two churches outside Colombo.
A few hours later, two more blasts occurred just outside Colombo, one at a guesthouse where two people were killed, the other near an overpass.
Three police officers were killed during a search at a suspected safe house on the outskirts of Colombo when its occupants apparently detonated explosives to prevent arrest, authorities said.
They said a large bomb had been found and defused late on Sunday on an access road to the international airport.
Air Force Group Captain Gihan Seneviratne said on Monday that authorities had found a pipe bomb filled with 50kg (110lb) of explosives. It was large enough to have caused damage to a 400m (400-yard) radius, he said.
Irish Times, AP and Reuters