Proposed proportional Representation in Lebanon: Winners and Losers.

by Ghassan Karam

It is not uncommon, in all fields and not only in politics, to neglect the root cause of a problem by concentrating instead on peripheral issues that under the best of circumstances will not make a major contribution to the solution for the problem at hand. The recent infatuation by the Lebanese politicians to present a new and reformed electoral system is an excellent case in point.

Let us be clear from the start. There is no such thing as a perfect electoral system anywhere in the world and furthermore there are , by most measures, vibrant responsive democracies that are purely majoritarian while others use a proportional system. This fact alone should put to rest the argument that what ails politics in Lebanon can be simply fixed by making some electoral changes from a system of plurality to one of proportionality. It is important to note also that although there are still more countries with a majoritarian system the proportionality camp has registered significant gains all over the world. A quick look at the map of the world would reveal that the Americas are predominantly majoritarians while Europe is the opposite, proportional. Many in Africa and Asia appear to be moving towards proportionality.

Another important point to emphasize is that the choice of a system is the ultimate political decision. Those in power are not to be expected to design a system that will weaken them, just the contrary the choice is probably motivated by pure selfish political gains that are hidden by claims of fairness , efficiency and equality. It is also to be noted that any system can be made fairer and more representative by other means such as ease of access to the vote,simple and open non discriminatory laws, ease and clarity of the nominating process, reasonable campaign finance policies that are vigorously enforced,availability of  judicial avenues for settling legal challenges quickly and efficiently and last but not least accurate voter registration lists and an easy and accessible method for those living overseas to participate in the vote.

Based on the above it should be clear that the single most important failing of the current, as well as the proposed, Lebanese electoral system is not addressed. The bane of Lebanon is the sectarian allocation of official positions, elected and appointed. Sectarianism is discriminatory and is the single most important reform that needs to be adopted in Lebanese electoral politics. Another hugely important reform would be the adoption of an electoral system based on place of residence instead of the archaic, inefficient and burdensome current policy base on the registered place of birth. The act of voting should not require traveling for hours to a place that one hardly knows by interrupting their regularly scheduled affairs and incurring significant expenses.

Yet , we are faced with the possibility of having the Chamber of Deputies adopt a new proposed electoral system. What are its main features? The two most significant elements of the new proposal are the redistricting of the electoral map and the yardstick by which winners are declared. Lebanon is currently divided into 23 districts that would be shrunk into only 13 and instead of the majoritarianism the new law is based on proportionality. The sectarian allocation of the seats will not be affected, the Christians would still get their 64 MP’s and so would Moslems.

So what is proportional about this system if sectarianism is to be preserved? All what that means is that since winners do not automatically take all the seats then some of the losers will get to be represented. Ironically, proportionality is advocated usually to improve on diversity but in Lebanon the political system is already weak and fragmented and it is questionable whether what we need is more fragmentation. Proportionality in Lebanon would only weaken the already weak political parties and will end up in amplifying the religious fault lines when the country needs exactly the opposite. Lebanon, in my opinion, would be better served if the number of political parties will shrink substantially and confessionalism ceases to determine eligibility for office.

Then there is always the question of what is it that leads to more responsive government, is it party platforms or is it in the individual criteria of each legislature?  In Lebanon, as well as the rest of the world, those who favour voting for political parties support proportional elections while those that believe that emphasis should be placed on the individual seeking political office support majoritarian small district elections.

Given the above brief description of where we are and what is the new proposal let us review very quickly the basic facts of the proposal:

Total voter registration (2009):   3,266,074 composed of about 60% Moslems and 40% Christians although half the 128 parliamentary seats are allocated to each religious group. This works out to be an average of 25516 registered voter per MP but in practice this is not the case. Bint Jbeil district has the highest number of voters per MP (>35,000) followed by Akar (>32,000) while Jbeil , Kisrwan has only about 20,500 per MP followed by Rashia with essentially the same number of registered voters per MP.

The following is the list of the suggested 13 districts and an estimate of the registered voters in each , based on the 2009 lists:

 

NORTH                                         MP                     Registered Voters/MP            Expected Victors

Akar environs                              10                                   32,200                                               March 14

Tripoli environs                             8                                   24,500                                               March 14  ??

Zogarta,Kora environs              10                                   23,500                                               March 14

 

Bekka

Zahle environs                              7                                    22,500                                              ????????????

Rashia/West Bekaa                     6                                    20,500                                              March 14  ???

Baalbeck/Hermel                       10                                    25,600                                               March 8

 

SOUTH

Sidon/Tyre                                  12                                    29,800                                               March 8

Bint Jbeil/ Nabatiyeh                11                                    35,000                                               March 8

 

BEIRUT

Beirut I(Achrafeih/Saifi..)      9                                     21,700                                              March 14 ???

Beirut II(Ras Beirut…)          10                                    25,300                                               March 14

 

Mount Lebanon

Baabda/Metn                           14                                    23,000                                              March 8

Jbeil/Kesrwan                           8                                     20,600                                              March 8  ???

Chouf/Aley                               13                                    23,100                                               March 14

 

It is evident that the redistricting was done in order to improve the chances of March 8 and weaken those of March 14.  The most obvious is the total elimination of the Sidon vote by including it with an area that would ensure a March 8 victory by a large margin. Practically the same thing, but to a smaller extent, was done to the Metn area by merging it with Baabda a much stronger March 8 district. The same is true of the Jbeil Kisrwan area which was created to strengthen the Aounists. Another significant development is that of practically neutralizing Zahle , Beirut I and even Tripoli. The 2009 vote also makes it clear that the March 8 wins, especially in the South would be so overwhelming that it would be difficult for the opposition to get any representation even under a proportional system. That is not the case for the March 14 areas where the wins will be comfortable but where the opposition will make some gains under the new formula. Taking all the above into consideration it is my overall estimate that March 14 is assured of clear victories 39 seats while March 8 about 51. The 38 remaining seats of of essentially Zahle, Beirut I, Tripoli, Rashia and Jbeil would probably be slightly in favour of March 14, say 20 for March 14 and 20 for March 8. This would lead to a 128 seat parliament composed of 69 March 8 and 59 March 14. March 14 could upset these calculations through decisive victories in Tripoli, Beirut I and Zahle.

  • Constantin7

    I am not sure about the accuracy of the numbers of these registered voters, they total about 330,000 in a country of 4 Million. For example to say that the Metn and Baada which has the area the most populated in Lebanon (including the Northern, Eastern and Southern suburbs of Beirut) has only 23,000 voters, this looks ridiculous. May be there is a “zero” missing in all these numbers….

    • Ghassan Karam

      Constantin,
                     The figures are 100% accurate. Unfortunately you missed what I said in the post. Lebanon has voter registration lists of over 3.2 million. I spent hours doing the research to collect the actual figures and break them down. The headings on the table, if you notice ,says average number of registered voter per MP.
                        Look at the Akar district as an example, The 10 MP have an average of 32000 voters per each which means that the district has about 322,000 registered voters. Now compare this with Beirut II,. Beirut  II has 10 MP and an average of about 25,300 registered voters per MP ie. total registered voters are about 253,000. Now do the comparison with Akar and you find out that in one district 322,000 voters had 10 MP’s while another district that has 25 % less voters had the same number of registered voters.
                     Remember that the averages that I used are rounded up figures but you should still get 3.2 million voters for Lebanon if you multiply for each district its  number of MP’s times the average number of voters in that district.

      • Constantin7

        Sorry my mistake! I glanced through the article and did not notice the “average” per MP… Thank you for the correction and the hard work for research !  :-)

        • Ghassan Karam

          constantine7,
                            Notice also that March 14 and Jumblatt do not object to proportionality as much as to the new redistricting. Those who came up with the new districts were clearly working against the intersts of March 14 and for the interests of March 8. Let me stress again the most obvious aspect of the new redistricting. March 14 was assured of the 2 seats in Sidon, Bahia Hariri and Fouad Saniora. The new plan has merged Sidon with Tyre and the rest of the South which eliminates the March 14 plurality in Sidon  . This probably means that it is highly likely that the new parliament, if the proposed plan is accepted, will NOT have either a Bahia Hariri nor a Fouad Saniora, two very important March 14 personalities.

      • Constantin7

        Sorry my mistake! I glanced through the article and did not notice the “average” per MP… Thank you for the correction and the hard work for research !  :-)

  • Constantin7

    I am not sure about the accuracy of the numbers of these registered voters, they total about 330,000 in a country of 4 Million. For example to say that the Metn and Baada which has the area the most populated in Lebanon (including the Northern, Eastern and Southern suburbs of Beirut) has only 23,000 voters, this looks ridiculous. May be there is a “zero” missing in all these numbers….

    • http://profiles.google.com/karam.ghassan Ghassan Karam

      Constantin,
                     The figures are 100% accurate. Unfortunately you missed what I said in the post. Lebanon has voter registration lists of over 3.2 million. I spent hours doing the research to collect the actual figures and break them down. The headings on the table, if you notice ,says average number of registered voter per MP.
                        Look at the Akar district as an example, The 10 MP have an average of 32000 voters per each which means that the district has about 322,000 registered voters. Now compare this with Beirut II,. Beirut  II has 10 MP and an average of about 25,300 registered voters per MP ie. total registered voters are about 253,000. Now do the comparison with Akar and you find out that in one district 322,000 voters had 10 MP’s while another district that has 25 % less voters had the same number of registered voters.
                     Remember that the averages that I used are rounded up figures but you should still get 3.2 million voters for Lebanon if you multiply for each district its  number of MP’s times the average number of voters in that district.

      • Constantin7

        Sorry my mistake! I glanced through the article and did not notice the “average” per MP… Thank you for the correction and the hard work for research !  :-)

        • http://profiles.google.com/karam.ghassan Ghassan Karam

          constantine7,
                            Notice also that March 14 and Jumblatt do not object to proportionality as much as to the new redistricting. Those who came up with the new districts were clearly working against the intersts of March 14 and for the interests of March 8. Let me stress again the most obvious aspect of the new redistricting. March 14 was assured of the 2 seats in Sidon, Bahia Hariri and Fouad Saniora. The new plan has merged Sidon with Tyre and the rest of the South which eliminates the March 14 plurality in Sidon  . This probably means that it is highly likely that the new parliament, if the proposed plan is accepted, will NOT have either a Bahia Hariri nor a Fouad Saniora, two very important March 14 personalities.

  • ClayShentrup

    > It is not uncommon, in all fields and not only in politics, to neglect the root cause of a problem by concentrating instead on peripheral issues that under the best of circumstances will not make a major contribution to the solution for the problem at hand.

    In general, voting systems have a far larger impact on the general welfare of the citizenry than does any other root issue. This is commonly misunderstood, but particularly evident since the year 2000, when Bayesian Regret analysis of voting systems revealed that a switch from Plurality Voting to Score Voting would approximately DOUBLE the impact of democracy. And that’s not even a proportional system.

    • Ghassan Karam

      Clay,
            Electoral changes do make a difference otherwise no one will suggest them.  There are all sorts of studies that have been done regarding FPFP and proportional voting but the evidence seems to suggest that the special make up of the society in question is ultimately more of a determining factor than whether one system or the other is used. My point is two folds:
      (1) The real electoral reform in Lebanon  is that which gets rid of confessionalism.
      (2) Basic reform common to all systems of voting need to be implemented such as campaign finance, district size, vote in place of residence…

      The above above are ,in my mind, much more essential to what ails us than the purely political game of redistricting. That ends up, as is evident in this case, as being essentially gerrymandering without increasing access to the polls of the residents and making meaningful access to the vote for those living outside the country.  Let us concentrate on the basic reforms that are meaningful under all kinds of an electoral system and then consider whether FPFP or proportionality is better.

      NB  It is also important to keep in mind that the major criteria associated with proportionality is fragmentation. Lebanon needs consolidation and not fragmentation.

    • Ghassan Karam

      Clay,
            Electoral changes do make a difference otherwise no one will suggest them.  There are all sorts of studies that have been done regarding FPFP and proportional voting but the evidence seems to suggest that the special make up of the society in question is ultimately more of a determining factor than whether one system or the other is used. My point is two folds:
      (1) The real electoral reform in Lebanon  is that which gets rid of confessionalism.
      (2) Basic reform common to all systems of voting need to be implemented such as campaign finance, district size, vote in place of residence…

      The above above are ,in my mind, much more essential to what ails us than the purely political game of redistricting. That ends up, as is evident in this case, as being essentially gerrymandering without increasing access to the polls of the residents and making meaningful access to the vote for those living outside the country.  Let us concentrate on the basic reforms that are meaningful under all kinds of an electoral system and then consider whether FPFP or proportionality is better.

      NB  It is also important to keep in mind that the major criteria associated with proportionality is fragmentation. Lebanon needs consolidation and not fragmentation.

  • ClayShentrup

    > It is not uncommon, in all fields and not only in politics, to neglect the root cause of a problem by concentrating instead on peripheral issues that under the best of circumstances will not make a major contribution to the solution for the problem at hand.

    In general, voting systems have a far larger impact on the general welfare of the citizenry than does any other root issue. This is commonly misunderstood, but particularly evident since the year 2000, when Bayesian Regret analysis of voting systems revealed that a switch from Plurality Voting to Score Voting would approximately DOUBLE the impact of democracy. And that’s not even a proportional system.

    • http://profiles.google.com/karam.ghassan Ghassan Karam

      Clay,
            Electoral changes do make a difference otherwise no one will suggest them.  There are all sorts of studies that have been done regarding FPFP and proportional voting but the evidence seems to suggest that the special make up of the society in question is ultimately more of a determining factor than whether one system or the other is used. My point is two folds:
      (1) The real electoral reform in Lebanon  is that which gets rid of confessionalism.
      (2) Basic reform common to all systems of voting need to be implemented such as campaign finance, district size, vote in place of residence…

      The above above are ,in my mind, much more essential to what ails us than the purely political game of redistricting. That ends up, as is evident in this case, as being essentially gerrymandering without increasing access to the polls of the residents and making meaningful access to the vote for those living outside the country.  Let us concentrate on the basic reforms that are meaningful under all kinds of an electoral system and then consider whether FPFP or proportionality is better.

      NB  It is also important to keep in mind that the major criteria associated with proportionality is fragmentation. Lebanon needs consolidation and not fragmentation.

  • 5thDrawer

    Very good Ghassan. And true, what government ‘in power’ will honestly try to provide equality ??
    This is the kind of analysis of government that should be going out to ALL citizens – perhaps in even simpler terms, although this is rather simple – and after which a referendum would allow the people to decide if they agree with the need for anything ‘new’ … or simply wish for less incompetence and better representation.
    And how can one MP – as I have said before – represent 35,000 people anyway?
    AND YES that ‘ registered place of birth ‘ bit that the Romans used should have been scrapped a long time ago, in Lebanon and in Greece (etc). Aside from the ‘travel time & expense’ to get to where you are registered … it also means a bunch of people who don’t have to live in the ‘area conditions’ you do, and don’t care about you, can come to vote there and mess up your next four years, if they don’t elect someone who will work for your area. How could they know if anyone is competent if they only see that name once in 4 years – and were ‘advised’ to vote a certain way because of party or religion hacking?
    And like Greece (with similar economic conditions) there are TOO MANY parties. What is needed is more MPs handling smaller districts – with competence for the job – a criteria I am sure voters would happily decide on, especially after one term.That might reduce parties as well over some decades, when it is seen that they cannot function ‘for Lebanon’.
    And how could ‘Expats’ know any of that if they don’t spend much time in a place???

    Not counting real refugees, when was the last time an accurate ‘census’ was done … or are they going only by ‘birth/death’ notes and assuming?
    I fear discussion is useless anyway.

    • Ghassan Karam

      5th drawer,
                     To the best of my knowledge the voter registration lists are based only on the records of “birth/death” notices and so when they reflect a 3.2 million potential voter that includes the expats, some of whom have not set foot in the country in decades. Rumours have it that in some voting stations these expats never miss a vote :-)
                     Technically there are no laws against changing the voter registration so that one can vote where one is residing but try to do that. I know , first hand, of a few cases of citizens who wanted to do that but to no avail. It is Kafkaesque.

  • 5thDrawer

    Very good Ghassan. And true, what government ‘in power’ will honestly try to provide equality ??
    This is the kind of analysis of government that should be going out to ALL citizens – perhaps in even simpler terms, although this is rather simple – and after which a referendum would allow the people to decide if they agree with the need for anything ‘new’ … or simply wish for less incompetence and better representation.
    And how can one MP – as I have said before – represent 35,000 people anyway?
    AND YES that ‘ registered place of birth ‘ bit that the Romans used should have been scrapped a long time ago, in Lebanon and in Greece (etc). Aside from the ‘travel time & expense’ to get to where you are registered … it also means a bunch of people who don’t have to live in the ‘area conditions’ you do, and don’t care about you, can come to vote there and mess up your next four years, if they don’t elect someone who will work for your area. How could they know if anyone is competent if they only see that name once in 4 years – and were ‘advised’ to vote a certain way because of party or religion hacking?
    And like Greece (with similar economic conditions) there are TOO MANY parties. What is needed is more MPs handling smaller districts – with competence for the job – a criteria I am sure voters would happily decide on, especially after one term.That might reduce parties as well over some decades, when it is seen that they cannot function ‘for Lebanon’.
    And how could ‘Expats’ know any of that if they don’t spend much time in a place???

    Not counting real refugees, when was the last time an accurate ‘census’ was done … or are they going only by ‘birth/death’ notes and assuming?
    I fear discussion is useless anyway.

    • Ghassan Karam

      5th drawer,
                     To the best of my knowledge the voter registration lists are based only on the records of “birth/death” notices and so when they reflect a 3.2 million potential voter that includes the expats, some of whom have not set foot in the country in decades. Rumours have it that in some voting stations these expats never miss a vote :-)
                     Technically there are no laws against changing the voter registration so that one can vote where one is residing but try to do that. I know , first hand, of a few cases of citizens who wanted to do that but to no avail. It is Kafkaesque.

  • 5thDrawer

    Very good Ghassan. And true, what government ‘in power’ will honestly try to provide equality ??
    This is the kind of analysis of government that should be going out to ALL citizens – perhaps in even simpler terms, although this is rather simple – and after which a referendum would allow the people to decide if they agree with the need for anything ‘new’ … or simply wish for less incompetence and better representation.And how can one MP – as I have said before – represent 35,000 people anyway?
    AND YES that ‘ registered place of birth ‘ bit that the Romans used should have been scrapped a long time ago, in Lebanon and in Greece (etc). Aside from the ‘travel time & expense’ to get to where you are registered … it also means a bunch of people who don’t have to live in the ‘area conditions’ you do, and don’t care about you, can come to vote there and mess up your next four years, if they don’t elect someone who will work for your area. How could they know if anyone is competent if they only see that name once in 4 years – and were ‘advised’ to vote a certain way because of party or religion hacking?And like Greece (with similar economic conditions) there are TOO MANY parties. What is needed is more MPs handling smaller districts – with competence for the job – a criteria I am sure voters would happily decide on, especially after one term.That might reduce parties as well over some decades, when it is seen that they cannot function ‘for Lebanon’.And how could ‘Expats’ know any of that if they don’t spend much time in a place???Not counting real refugees, when was the last time an accurate ‘census’ was done … or are they going only by ‘birth/death’ notes and assuming?
    I fear discussion is useless anyway.

    • http://profiles.google.com/karam.ghassan Ghassan Karam

      5th drawer,
                     To the best of my knowledge the voter registration lists are based only on the records of “birth/death” notices and so when they reflect a 3.2 million potential voter that includes the expats, some of whom have not set foot in the country in decades. Rumours have it that in some voting stations these expats never miss a vote :-)
                     Technically there are no laws against changing the voter registration so that one can vote where one is residing but try to do that. I know , first hand, of a few cases of citizens who wanted to do that but to no avail. It is Kafkaesque.

  • Prophettttt

    Ghassan, Although you’re correct that a proportional representation will not address the core problems of the Lebanese political structure, it would be a step in the right direction. It is worth noting, as you pointed out, that every cabinet, including the present one, has adopted an electoral system which favors its own selfish desires to gain a majority in the parliament. Claiming fairness and equality is just another big lie designed to cover up their failure to address the core problem of the electoral system itself, and of the entire political system of the country, which is the sectarianism of the system, as well as the entire Lebanese society.
    A proportional representation, being adopted for the first time, might result in a more accurate representation based on the sectarian system in place already, but it does not changed the fact that some deputies will represent 120 thousand people, and others might represent 25 thousand. Nor would it change the fact that all deputies will be as, if not more, sectarian than the ones in parliament now.
    This will bring us back to the question we’ve been asking for years, and that is; when are we going to see a major overhaul of the entire system, and get rid of sectarianism all together. When are we going to see a parliament, and a political leadership, where by feudalism and inheritance of political positions are not considered rights for these people .Maybe I should have started my question by asking if we ever would see, instead of when, would see those changes.
    None of the political leaderships, whether in opposition or in power, are capable of making any of the changes required to bring Lebanon into the age of democracy and freedom as we wish. I just wonder what would it take for Lebanon people to elect a political culture, and leaders who are not selfish and who are capable enough of making such changes without worrying about their own political positions.
    Both sides have many bad things in common, yet one habit not being noted much is that both sides enjoy patting themselves on the back every time they propose some bill which would guarantee their jobs.
    I think I still have the right to dream.

    • Ghassan Karam

      Prophettttt
                     Personally, my preference is for the single candidate district with strict limits on campaign spending, easy access to the vote and obviously equal opportunity for all to become candidates. That is not likely to happen and I am not strongly tied to the first past the post line system. There are some good aspects for proportionality. My major point is that this proposal in Lebanon is using proportionality as an excuse for redistricting that in every case weakens March 14 and strengthens March 8 potential candidates. It is simply old fashioned gerry mandering presented as reform. I do not have major objections to proportional representation but I contend that there are many steps that need to be taken to improve the system irrespective of whether it is proportional or not. The proposed system is essentially a step that establishes sectarianism through the districts that are either overwhelmingly Shia or Sunni or Christian. In a sense we are moving under a veil towards the Orthodox suggestion of having every sect vote for its candidates.

  • Prophettttt

    Ghassan, Although you’re correct that a proportional representation will not address the core problems of the Lebanese political structure, it would be a step in the right direction. It is worth noting, as you pointed out, that the every cabinet, including the present one, has adopted an electoral system which favors its own selfish desires to gain a majority in the parliament. Claiming fairness and equality is just another big lie designed to cover up their failure to address the core problem of the electoral system itself, and of the entire political system of the country, which is the sectarianism of the system, as well as the entire Lebanese society.
    A proportional representation, being adopted for the first time, might result in a more accurate representation based on the sectarian system in place already, but it does not changed the fact that some deputies will represent 120 thousand people, and others might represent 25 thousand. Nor would it change the fact that all deputies will be as, if not more, sectarian than the ones in parliament now.
    This will bring us back to the question we’ve been asking for years, and that is; when are we going to see a major overhaul of the entire system, and get rid of sectarianism all together. When are we going to see a parliament, and a political leadership, where by feudalism and inheritance of political positions are not considered rights for these people .Maybe I should have started my question by asking if we ever would see, instead of when, would see those changes.
    None of the political leaderships, whether in opposition or in power, are capable of making any of the changes required to bring Lebanon into the age of democracy and freedom as we wish. I just wonder what would it take for Lebanon people to elect a political culture, and leaders who are not selfish and who are capable enough of making such changes without worrying about their own political positions.
    Both sides have many bad things in common, yet one habit not being noted much is that both sides enjoy patting themselves on the back every time they propose some bill which would guarantee their jobs.
    I think I still have a right to dream.

    • http://profiles.google.com/karam.ghassan Ghassan Karam

      Prophettttt
                     Personally, my preference is for the single candidate district with strict limits on campaign spending, easy access to the vote and obviously equal opportunity for all to become candidates. That is not likely to happen and I am not strongly tied to the first past the post line system. There are some good aspects for proportionality. My major point is that this proposal in Lebanon is using proportionality as an excuse for redistricting that in every case weakens March 14 and strengthens March 8 potential candidates. It is simply old fashioned gerry mandering presented as reform. I do not have major objections to proportional representation but I contend that there are many steps that need to be taken to improve the system irrespective of whether it is proportional or not. The proposed system is essentially a step that establishes sectarianism through the districts that are either overwhelmingly Shia or Sunni or Christian. In a sense we are moving under a veil towards the Orthodox suggestion of having every sect vote for its candidates.

  • abdi Salim

    Soon Hezboallah will loose its power following Assad fall.
    People could vote without fear and the picture will be different.

  • abdi Salim

    Soon Hezboallah will loose its power following Assad fall.
    People could vote without fear and the picture will be different.

  • http://profile.yahoo.com/4K52SUFPVB2DDUTPSS6YKCTUQE jim

    What proportional representation ? you must be joking all.!! for as long as these BRITISH PUPPET MERCENARIES called MULLAHS are 
    interfering
    in the internal affairs of  Lebanon ,
    the people of Lebanon   will never see the daylight .
    these pieces of human excrement
    have a finger in every pie . their
    mission is to completely destroy Lebanon from within . that’s
    what a mercenary does .that’s his mission .
    it is incumbent upon the Lebanese masses to get rid of the remnants of
    mullahs puppets in Lebanon’s political structure before any talk of proportional representation could materialize !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • http://profile.yahoo.com/4K52SUFPVB2DDUTPSS6YKCTUQE jim

    What proportional representation ? you must be joking all.!! for as long as these BRITISH PUPPET MERCENARIES called MULLAHS are 
    interfering
    in the internal affairs of  Lebanon ,
    the people of Lebanon   will never see the daylight .
    these pieces of human excrement
    have a finger in every pie . their
    mission is to completely destroy Lebanon from within . that’s
    what a mercenary does .that’s his mission .
    it is incumbent upon the Lebanese masses to get rid of the remnants of
    mullahs puppets in Lebanon’s political structure before any talk of proportional representation could materialize !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • http://profile.yahoo.com/4K52SUFPVB2DDUTPSS6YKCTUQE jim

     What proportional representation ? you must be joking all.!! for as long
    as these BRITISH PUPPET MERCENARIES called MULLAHS are 
    interfering
    in the internal affairs of  Lebanon ,
    the people of Lebanon   will never see the daylight .
    these pieces of human excrement
    have a finger in every pie . their
    mission is to completely destroy Lebanon from within . that’s
    what a mercenary does .that’s his mission .
    it is incumbent upon the Lebanese masses to get rid of the remnants of
    mullahs
    puppets in Lebanon’s political structure before any talk of
    proportional representation could materialize !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • http://profile.yahoo.com/4K52SUFPVB2DDUTPSS6YKCTUQE jim

     What proportional representation ? you must be joking all.!! for as long
    as these BRITISH PUPPET MERCENARIES called MULLAHS are 
    interfering
    in the internal affairs of  Lebanon ,
    the people of Lebanon   will never see the daylight .
    these pieces of human excrement
    have a finger in every pie . their
    mission is to completely destroy Lebanon from within . that’s
    what a mercenary does .that’s his mission .
    it is incumbent upon the Lebanese masses to get rid of the remnants of
    mullahs
    puppets in Lebanon’s political structure before any talk of
    proportional representation could materialize !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • abdi Salim

    Soon Hezboallah will loose its power following Assad fall.
    People could vote without fear and the picture will be different.