The European Union has announced sanctions against 13 Syrian officials over violent repression against anti-government demonstrations since mid-March.
Below are the 13 individuals named on the list and the EU’s allegations against them.
1. Maher al-Assad
President’s Bashar al-Assad’s brother. Prinicipal overseer of violence against demonstrators. Commander of the army’s 4th Division, member of the Baath Party Central Command, strongman of the Republican guard.
2. Ali Mamlouk
Syria’s Head of General Intelligence Service; involved in violence against demonstrators.
3. Mohammed Ibrahim al-Chaar
Country’s minister of interior; took part in promoting violence against demonstrators.
4. Atef Najib
Former head of security in the city of Deraa; involved in violence against protesters.
5. Hafez Makhlouf
Colonel and Head of Unit in the General Intelligence Directorate – Damascus Branch; He is close to Maher al-Assad and involved in violence against protesters.
6. Mohammed Dib Zeitoun
Head of political security; responsible for violence against demonstrators.
7. Amjad al-Abbas
Head of security in the city of Banias; involved in violence against protesters in Baida.
8. Rami Makhlouf
He is the first cousin of Bashar and Maher al-Assad and one of the most powerful economic figures in Syria. Makhlouf provides key financial support for regime’s violence against demonstrators.
9. Abd Al-Fatah Qudsiyah
Head of Syrian military intelligence; involved in the repression against the civilian population.
10. Jamil Hassan
Head of Syrian Air Force Intelligence and as such involved in the repression against the civilian population.
11. Rustum Ghazali
Head of of Damascus countryside branch of Syrian military intelligence; involved in the repression against the civilian population.
12. Fawwaz al-Assad
A leader of the Shabiha – undercover- militia; involved in the repression against the civilian population.
13. Mundir al-Assad
Took part in the repression against the civilian population as part of the Shabiha militia.